While urine colour works well as a quick and easy guide, a far more accurate reading can be attained by using a Refractometer. The ATAGO Pen Refractometer (Model No. 3471) is designed to measure USG (Urine Specific Gravity), being a more effective and efficient way to assess hydration status.
Lighter coloured urine is more dilute (i.e. it has less molecules per volume), and has a specific gravity closer to that of water (1.00), indicating a good hydration status. Dark coloured urine results from having more molecules per volume (higher USG) and indicates dehydration.